WordPress Tutorial

WordPress Quick Start Tutorial (by catkroll)

This brief WordPress tutorial covers an Introduction to WP site architecture (Dashboard, Media Library, etc.), blogging on the Festivals course website, and developing your own WP site.

WordPress site architecture (or logical structure): WordPress is a free, open-source content management system (CMS) used by millions of individuals and businesses to host personal portfolios, blogs, academic and personal projects, and to sell merchandise and services. As you are getting to know how WP operates, it will be helpful to understand how this and many other popular CMSs operate. WordPress web designers offer users a wide variety of built-­in templates. For the Festivals course, we will be using only those templates that are fully accessible so that those who need visual or auditory accommodations will be able to experience and to appreciate your work.

All WordPress sites operate according to a predictable, consistent site architecture. WordPress, like other CMSs, has a Dashboard of control options you can use to make global changes to your site (such as changing your theme template, categories, or font). All media files you upload will be stored in your Media Library permanently, so you can re­use, re­size, or rearrange them at will.

Important: as with other CMSs, your posts, edits, and site changes will not be effective until you hit the Save & Publish (or Update) button on the page. If you try to leave the page without saving, WordPress will remind you that you have unsaved changes.

Site navigation: As you become more familiar with WordPress navigation, you’ll notice that there is a fair amount of helpful redundancy in its operations: that is, you can access different areas and features of your site through a variety of pathways. For example, there are different ways to return to your home page and different ways to create new pages or posts.

Adding pages or posts is done by clicking on the blue pencil icon located at the top right­hand corner of any page. An html editor box with toolbars will open up (this will feel very much like the set­up in Microsoft Word). You have the option of typing or pasting in text when the Visual tab is activated (it defaults to this), or typing or pasting in html code. This can be useful if you need to customize something, check if a link is broken, or troubleshoot another issue. Normally, though, you’ll probably be leaving the html tab alone and just using the Visual tab. If you need special characters that are not supported by WordPress, I recommend that you type out that content in Word first (using Word’s Insert → Symbols → Advanced Symbols feature) and then paste it into the html editor box. After doing this, check your text and restore any formatting (or text) that has been lost.

Editing or updating individual pages or posts is done by clicking on the “Edit” link at the top left of the page under your profile photograph, or by clicking on the blue pencil by clicking on the blue pencil icon located at the bottom right corner of the particular page you’d like to edit.

WordPress has a variety of useful plug­ins already installed, such as Site Stats that records visits to your page; Akismet Stats that blocks spam; buttons that allow for links to Facebook, Google+, and other popular sites, and buttons for printing and emailing. You can customize your site further by adding plug­ins designed to be used with WordPress: https://wordpress.org/plugins/. For example, you can add a tag cloud widget that visually represents key words or terms on your site: https://en.support.wordpress.com/widgets/tag­cloud­widget/.

Blogging on our course website: Dr. Snow and I will assign you the role of Author so you can add blog posts to the Festivals course website. Most of your blogging will be done on your own individual sites, where you will be the site Administrator. Please see below for tips on adding blog posts to existing sites (topics #5 and #6).

Creating your own site in WordPress: WordPress has some tutorials embedded in its main site (and see https://learn.wordpress.com), but below I present a few tips to help you get started.

  1. Select your WordPress theme. Be sure to use themes that meet accessibility standards so your work can be experienced by all. You can find the current list of those themes here: Accessible WordPress Themes
  1. Select a free WordPress account and type in your site name (you can always change your actual site name later).
  1. At this point, you can access a variety of introductory tutorials, if you’d like: https://learn.wordpress.com. Alternatively, proceed with the quick­start instructions below.

4.  Customizing the appearance of your site:

  • Insert a header image (visit Wikimedia Commons for images that have been licensed through Creative Commons and are acceptable to use as long as you properly attribute them to their creator). From My Sites, click on WP Admin, which will take you to the Dashboard. Once there, click on Appearance, then Header, then Header Image. This action takes you to the Media Library, where you have the choice of using an existing image or of uploading a new image. Select the relevant image → Select & Crop → Save & Publish. You may need to crop your image so it views properly in the allotted space of the WP template you’re using. Important: below each image you insert on a page, be sure to insert a caption (in the html editor box) attributing the image to the original creator and cite the source where you located it. Ideally, use your own images, those licensed through Creative Commons (for example, those available on Wikimedia Commons), or those in the public domain.
  • To insert images, audio, and video files on a page or within a post: click on the “picture” icon on the top of the toolbar at the far left. This takes you to your Media Library. From there, click on the file you’d like to insert from your computer, or add a new file or a url link. Then click Insert. Crop as necessary.
  • At any point, you can change your WP theme (but remember to choose one that meets accessibility standards: Accessible WordPress Themes).
  • To get back to your current home page, click on My Site in the top left corner. You will see your site listed there. Hover over the name of your site and click on the blue “home” icon.
  • Change the title of your site (and subtitle) as needed. On the left hand side of the page, click My Site in the top left corner –> WP Admin → Appearance → Customize → Site Title. Fill in Site Title (main title) and Tagline (subtitle). Check that “Display Header Text” box is checked. Click Save & Publish. Click X to exit back to the Dashboard.
  • To change fonts and font sizes: From My Site –> WP Admin –>  Appearance → Customize → Fonts → select from dropdown menu of fonts. Then click Save & Publish.
  • Create a static front page (your landing page). From My Site –> WP Admin –> Appearance → Customize → Static Front Page → A static page. Click Save & Publish.
  • Create menus (tabs across top of your site): From My Site –> WP Admin –> Appearance → Menus → View All. Click the Pages and Posts you’d like to be visible. Click  Primary Menu, then Save Menu. Note: you can create both menus and submenus (see #8 below). Experiment!
  1. To create a new page or a blog post, click on the pencil icon in the top right­hand corner of the page. An html editor box will open up. Give that page or blog a title, then type (or paste in) your content. Click Save & Publish when you are finished.
  1. Editing an existing page or blog post: You can go back and edit a page or blog post at any point by clicking on the blue pencil icon at the far lower right corner of the page. Click Update and then View Post.
  1. Some handy keyboard shortcuts: Ctrl (or Command on Mac) X = cut

Ctrl (or Command on Mac) C = copy

Ctrl (or Command on Mac) V = paste

See also the complete list of WP keyboard shortcuts: https://codex.wordpress.org/Keyboard_Shortcuts. Sometimes, it will be useful to create content in Word and then insert it into an html editor box on a page in WordPress (especially if you are making use of lots of special characters or symbols). You may need to make some minor formatting adjustments after importing your content; also check to ensure that none of your text has been lost.

  1. Creating menus (tabs at the top of your site): from My Site → WP Admin → Appearance –> Menus. Give your menu a name. Click View All, then click which pages and posts should be visible as a menu. You can either align them all flush left or indent slightly to create submenus (drop-down menus). Click Primary Menu, then Save Menu. To delete a menu, click on the link in red at the bottom of the Menu page.
  1. Create your profile: from My Sites → WP Admin → Users → My Profile. Fill out the basic information, including a little bit about yourself. Upload a headshot or other image from your computer to customize your Gravatar (globally recognized avatar). You can crop the image so that it fits well in the available space.
  1. Insert email, print, Facebook, Google+, and other buttons by going to Settings → Sharing. Drag (and rearrange as you like) the Sharing buttons you wish to add to your pages into the “Enabled Services” area.
  1. License your site at Creative Commons to preserve your research and all of the hard work that went into the creation of your site: https://creativecommons.org/choose/. You can display the license in your sidebar. See the end of this tutorial for an example of what a Creative Commons license looks like.

Embedding Maps, Timelines, Audio, Video, and Plug­ins into Your WordPress Site: One of the great advantages of the digital humanities field is that it affords you many different ways to represent your ideas and, in fact, allows you to ask unique kinds of research questions and to creatively design the presentation of your findings. The medium in which you represent your ideas contributes to their communicative and aesthetic power. For example, embedding audio files of interviews into your site (by uploading them to SoundCloud and then displaying them on your site) affords your audience a sense of the intimacy and vibrant power of the human voice. The same holds true for video files: once you create them, import them into YouTube, and then link to them from your site, you add a visual and acoustic dimension beyond print. Further, you may find that maps or timelines help you narrate a particular aspect of your research, and these can be easily embedded in your site as well.

Deleting a Site: from the Dashboard → Tools → Delete Site.

A few tools for representing your ideas visually and acoustically, as well as textually:

Wordle: creates a word cloud to show the relationships between key words or terms; http://www.wordle.net

Timeline JS3 (considered one of the best pieces of timeline software): http://timeline.knightlab.com

TimeToast (easy ­to ­use timeline software): https://www.timetoast.com

Tiki­-Toki (more sophisticated timeline software): http://www.tiki­toki.com

Infographics: piktochart. http://piktochart.com

gifs: http://giphy.com

.mp4 to .mp3 converter: http://www.onlinevideoconverter.com/video­converter

GarageBand (available on Macs)

Audacity sound recording software (for both PC and Mac): http://audacityteam.org

Voice Memos on iPhone: for recording audio; easily imported to computer as .mp3 files

iMovie (available on Macs)

Camtasia:  simple video and screen recording software (many universities have this installed on computers in their labs; free trial available): https://www.techsmith.com/camtasia.html



For an amazing blend of the artistic and the geographic, see Rebecca Solnit’s Infinite City: A San Francisco Atlas, which combines geographic information system (GIS) technology, cultural history, and spatial analysis of San Francisco’s communities: http://amzn.to/1TT3qz2

Creative Commons License
WordPress Quick Start Tutorial by Cathy Kroll is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Readings on Ethnography and Oral History

Boyd, Douglas A. and Mary A. Larson. Oral History and Digital Humanities: Voice, Access, and Engagement. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.

Brown, S. G. & Dobrin, S. I. Ethnography Unbound: From Theory Shock to Critical Praxis. Albany: State University of New York P, 2004.

Charmaz, Kathy. Logic of Grounded Theory Coding Practices. In Constructing Grounded Theory. Second Edition. Los Angeles: Sage, 2014.

Emerson, Robert M., Fretz, Rachel I., and Shaw, Linda L. Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes. Second Edition. Chicago: U Chicago P, 2004.

—.  “Fieldnotes in Research.” Emerson_Fieldnotes in Ethnogr Research

—. “Writing Fieldnotes.” Emerson_Writing Fieldnotes

Geertz, Clifford. “Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight.” In The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York: Basic Books, 1973. Web. 3 Jan. 2016. Also reprinted in Daedalus 134.4 (Fall 2005): 56-86.


Heyl, Barbara Sherman. “Ethnographic Interviewing.” In Handbook of Ethnography. Ed. Paul Atkinson, Amanda Coffey, Sara Delamont, John Lofland, and Lyn Lofland. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 2001. Heyl, Ethnographic Interviewing

Ritchie, Donald A. Doing Oral History. Third Edition. New York: Oxford UP, 2015.

Schlesinger, Kenneth. “Reactions of Racquetball Players to Lost Points.” In Researching American Culture: A Guide for Student Anthropologists. Ed. Conrad Phillip Kottak. Ann Arbor: U Michigan P, 1982. Schlesinger_Reactions of Racquetball Players

Soyini Madison, D. “Introduction to Critical Ethnography.” In Critical Ethnography: Method, Ethics, and Performance. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 2005.Madison, Intro. to Critical Ethnography

—. Madison on ethnographic interviewing: “Do I Really Need a Method?” A Method . . . or Deep Hanging Out? in Critical Ethnography: Method, Ethics, and Performance. Second edition. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 2014.

Wolcott, Harry F.”Ethnography as a Way of Seeing.” In Ethnography: A Way of Seeing. Second Edition. Lanham, MD: AltaMira P, 2008. Print. Wolcott_Ethnogr as a Way of Seeing

Yow, Valerie Raleigh. Recording Oral History: A Guide for the Humanities and Social Sciences. Third Edition. Walnut Creek: Alta Mira P, 2014.

Festivals Around the Country

The West

Alaska Folk Festival (Juneau, AK)

American Graffiti Car Show and Parade, Petaluma, May

Anchorage Folk Festival (Anchorage, AK)

Apple Blossom Festival, Sebastopol, April

Arizona Wild West Festival (Cave Creek, AZ)

Avocado Festival (Fallbrook, CA)

Bald Eagle Festival (Haines, AK)

Balloon Festival and Fair (Lake Havasu City, AZ)

Bear Lake Raspberry Days (Garden City, UT)

Burning Man, Black Rock City, Nevada, September

California’s Artisan Cheese Festival, March 18-20, 2016 (10th annual; hosted by Sheraton Sonoma County, Petaluma)

Canon City Music and Blossom Festival (Canon City, CO)

Cheyenne Frontier Days (Cheyenne, WY)

Chocolate Festival (Portland, OR)

Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival, Indio, California, April

Coconut Festival (Kauai, HI)

Cotati Accordion Festival, August

Cowboy Days (Las Cruces, NM)

Daffodil Festival (Tacoma, WA)

Date Festival (Indio, CA)

East Maui Taro Festival (Hana, HI)

Elkfest (Jackson, WY)

Fort Bridger Rendezvous (Fort Bridger, WY)

Gay Pride Weekend, SF, June

Gilroy Garlic Festival, July

Gold Rush Days (Juneau, AK)

Grand Teton Music Festival (Teton Village, WY)

Gravenstein Apple Fair, Sebastopol, August

Hatch Valley Chile Festival (Hatch Valley, NM)

Helldorado Days (Las Vegas, NV)

Huckleberry Festival (Swan Valley, MT)

Idaho Spud Day (Shelly, ID)

International Balloon Fiesta (Albuquerque, NM)

Issaquah Salmon Days Festival (Seattle, WA)

Jackson Hole Old West Days (Jackson Hole, WY)

Kauai Orchid & Art Festival (Hanapepe, HI)

Little Bighorn Days (Hardin, MT)

Madrona Fiber Arts Festival (Tacoma, WA)

Merrie Monarch Festival (Hilo, HI)

Moab Festival (Moab, UT)

North American Indian Days (Browning, MT)

Northern California Cherry Blossom Festival, SF, April

Oakdale Testicle Festival [Rocky Mountain Oysters](Oakdale, CA)

Olive Festival (Corning, CA)

Ouray Ice Festival (Ouray, CO)

Petaluma Butter and Egg Days, April

Pig Out in the Park (Spokane, WA)

Pomegranate Festival (Madera, CA)

Portland Pirate Festival (Portland, OR)

Portland Rose Festival (Portland, OR)

Reno Jazz Festival (Reno, NV)

Salsa Festival (Oxnard, CA)

Sebastopol Cajun Zydeco Festival, September

Sitka Summer Music Festival (Sitka, AK)

Sitka Whalefest (Sitka, AK)

Snake River Stampede (Nampa, ID)

Sonoma County Harvest Fair, October

Stikine River Migratory Bird and Garnet Festival (Wrangell, AK)

Sundance Film Festival (Salt Lake City, UT)

Sweet Pea Festival (Bozeman, MT)

Trailing the Sheep (Sun Valley, ID)

Tucson Jazz Festival (Tucson, AZ)

Tulip Festival (Thanksgiving Point, UT)

UFO Festival (Roswell, NM)

Ullr Fest (Breckenridge, CO)

Victorian Heritage Festival (Port Townsend, WA)

Viva Las Vegas (Las Vegas, NV)

Waimea Cherry Blossom Festival (Waimea, HI)

Waterfront Blues Festival (Portland, OR)

Western Legends Roundup (Kanab, UT)

Wild Wild West Festival (Puebla, CO)

Yellowstone Ski Festival (Yellowstone Park, MT)

The South

Arab Poke Salat Festival (Arab, AL)

Atlanta Dogwood Festival (Atlanta, GA)

Batfest (Austin, TX)

Bikes, Blues & BBQ (Fayetteville, AR)

Biloxi Seafood Festival (Biloxi, MS)

Borderfest (Hidalgo, TX)

Breaux Bridge Crawfish Festival (Breaux Bridge, LA)

Burkville Okra Festival (Burkville, AL)

Chattanooga Riverbend Music Festival (Chattanooga, TN)

Chitlin Strut (Salley, SC)

Cullman Strawberry Festival (Cullman, AL)

Cullman Sweet Tater Festival (Cullman, AL)

Destin Seafood Festival (Destin, FL)

Fayetteville Dogwood Festival (Fayetteville, NC)

Folkmoot (Waynesville, NC)

Georgia Peach Festival (Peach County, GA)

Grapefest (Grapevine, TX)

Great Texas Mosquito Festival (Clute, TX)

Gullah Festival (Beauford, SC)

Hank Williams Festival (Georgiana, AL)

Hillbilly Days (Pikeville, KY)

Hotter’N Hell Hundred Bicycle Ride, Wichita Falls, TX, August

International Mango Festival (Coral Gables, FL)

Johnny Cash Music Festival (Ozark, AR)

Kentucky Bourbon Festival (Bardstown, KY)

Kentucky Derby Festival (Louisville, KY)

Kite Fest (Baton Rouge, LA)

Lake Apopka Wildlife Festival (Apopka, FL)

Louisiana Earth Day Festival (Baton Rouge, FL)

Mardi Gras Texas Style (Dallas, TX)

Market Street Festival (Columbus, MS)

Memphis Music & Heritage Festival (Memphis, TN)

Miami Reggae Festival (Miami, FL)

Mississippi Delta Blues Festival (Greenville, MS)

Mule Day (Columbia, TN)

National Storytelling Festival (Jonesborough, TN)

Neptune Festival (Virginia Beach, VA)

New Orleans Mardi Gras (New Orleans, LA)

Norfolk NATO Festival (Norfolk, VA)

North Carolina Apple Festival (Hendersonville, NC)

North Carolina Azalea Festival (Wilmington, NC)

North Carolina Pickle Festival (Mount Olive, NC)

Pecan Street Festival (Austin, TX)

Pungo Strawberry Festival (Virginia Beach, VA)

Red River Wine Festival (Wichita Falls, TX)

Richmond Folk Festival (Richmond, VA)

Scottsboro Catfish Festival (Scottsboro, AL)

Shenandoah Apple Blossom Festival (Winchester, VA)

Slugburger Festival (Corinth, MS)

Smithville Fiddlers’ Jamboree (Smithville, TN)

South Carolina Festival of Flowers (Greenwood, SC)

Spoleto Festival (Charleston, SC)

Springtime Tallahassee Fall Festival (Tallahassee, FL)

Sweetgrass Cultural Arts Festival (Mount Pleasance, SC)

Texas Sandfest (Port Aransas, TX)

Thunder on the Mountain (Ozark, AR)

Tifton Rhythm and Ribs (Tifton, GA)

Trail of Tears Pow-Wow (Hopkinsville, KY)

Tupelo Elvis Festival (Tupelo, MS)

Virginia Highlands Festival (Abingdon, VA)

Voodoo Experience (New Orleans, LA)

Wakarusa (Ozark, AR)

Woolly Worm Festival (Banner Elk, NC)

The Midwest

Abraham Lincoln Freedom Festival (Rockport, IN)

Apple Festival (Bayfield, WI)

Amelia Earhart Festival (Atchison, KS)

American Birkebeiner (Hayward, WI)

Beef Empire Days (Garden City, KS)

Black Hills Pow Wow (Rapid City, SD)

Blue Ribbon Bacon Festival (Des Moines, IA)

Buffalo Roundup and Arts Festival (Custer, SD)

Casey Popcorn Festival (Casey, IL)

Chicago Jazz Festival (Chicago, IL)

Cleveland Garlic Festival (Cleveland, OH)

Cobden Peach Festival (Cobden, IL)

Cranberry Festival (Warrens, WI)

Country USA (Oshkosh, WI)

Detroit Downtown Hoedown (Detroit, MI)

Detroit River Days (Detroit, MI)

Dickens Village Festival (Garrison, ND)

Dixon Petunia Festival (Dixon, IL)

Dodge City Days (Dodge City, KS)

Dogwood Days Festival (Idabel, OK)

Fort Sisseton Historical Festival (Fort Sisseton, SD)

Fried Onion Burger Day Festival (El Reno, OK)

Gold Discovery Days (Custer, SD)

Grand Cities Art Fest (Grand Forks, ND)

Great Lakes Folk Festival (East Lansing, MI)

Grumpy Old Men Festival (Wabash, MN)

Grundy County Corn Festival (Morris, IL)

Indian Summer Festival (Milwaukee, WI)

Jackson County Watermelon Festival (Brownstown, IN)

John C. Fremont (Fremont, NE)

Kansas City Irish Festival (Kansas City, MO)

Kook-Aid Days (Hastings, NE)

Mandan Rodeo Days (Mandan, ND)

Maple Leaf Festival (Carthage, MO)

Mayberry in the Midwest (Danville, IN)

Milwaukee Summerfest (Milwaukee, WI)

National Cherry Festival (Traverse City, MI)

National Harvest and Cowboy Festival (Branson, MO)

National Tom Sawyer Days (Hannibal, MO)

Nebraskaland Days (North Platte, NE)

NEMO Fair, Kirksville, MO, July

North American Snow Festival (Cadillac, MI)

Oktoberfest Zinzinnati (Cincinnati, OH)

Orange City Tulip Festival (Orange City, IA)

Oztoberfest (Wamego, KS)

Parke County Maple Syrup Fair (Rockville, IN)

Red Earth Festival (Oklahoma City, OK)

Redfern Festival (Tahlequah, OK)

Ribs & Bluegrass Festival (Medora, ND)

Saint Paul Winter Carnival (Saint Paul, MN)

Scandinavian Festival (Moorhead, MN)

Strawberry Festival (Farmington, IA)

Sturgis Motorcycle Rally (Sturgis, SD)

Sweet Corn Festival (West Point, IA)

Tulsa International Mayfest (Tulsa, OK)

Watonga Cheese Festival (Watonga, OK)

Wayne Chicken Show (Wayne, NE)

Wild Bill Days (Deadwood, SD)

The North

African-American Festival (Baltimore, MD)

Apple Pie Festival (Dummerston, VT)

Atlantic Antic (Brooklyn, NY)

Atlantic City Beer & Music Festival (Atlantic City, NJ)

Boast-the-Coast Maritime Festival (Lewes, DE)

Boston Dragon Boat Festival (Boston, MA)

Boston Harvest Fest (Boston, MA)

Celebrate Brooklyn (Brooklyn, NY)

Dover Days Festival (Dover, DE)

Festival of the Sea (Point Pleasant Beach, NJ)

Freyburg Fair (Freyburg, ME)

Gaspee Days (Warwick, RI)

Gettysburg Festival (Gettysburg, PA)

Goshen Blueberry Festival (CT)

Horseshoe Crab and Shorebird Festival (Milton, DE)

Hudson Valley Garlic Festival (Saugerties, NY)

Keene Pumpkin Festival (Keene, NH)

Kutztown Folk Festival (Kutztown, PA)

Lambertville Shad Festival (Lambertville, NJ)

Lowell Folk Fest (Lowell, MA)

Lupine Festival (Franconia, NH)

Milford Oyster Festival (CT)

Moose Mania (Greenville, ME)

Mountain State Apple Harvest Festival (Martinsburg, WV)

Mountain State Forest Festival (Elkins, WV)

Musikfest (Bethlehem, PA)

National Hard Crab Derby and Fair (Baltimore, MD)

Newport Folk Festival (Newport, RI)

Newport Winter Festival (Newport, RI)

Odunde Festival (Philadelphia, PA)

Old Fashioned Ice Cream Festival (Wilmington, DE)

Oswego Harborfest (Oswego, NY)

Plymouth Cheese and Harvest Festival (Plymouth Notch, VT)

Rochester Fair (Rochester, NH)

Scallop Fest (Cape Cod, MA)

Seafood Festival (Hampton Beach, NH)

Seymour Pumpkin Festival (CT)

Southington Apple Harvest Festival (CT)

Square Applefest (Franklin, PA)

Tulip Festival (Albany, NY)

Vermont Fine Furniture & Woodworking Festival (Woodstock, VT)

Vermont Maple Festival (Saint Albans, VT)

Waterfowl Festival (Easton, MD)

WheatonArts Festival of Fine Craft (Millville, NJ)

Yarmouth Clam Festival (Yarmouth, ME)

Washington, D.C.

National Book Festival

National Cherry Blossom Festival

Smithsonian Folklife Festival



Readings on Festivals

General Readings on Festivals

Abrahams, Roger D. “An American Vocabulary of Celebrations.” In Time Out of Time: Essays on the Festival. Ed. Alessandro Falassi. Albuquerque: U New Mexico P, 1987. Abrahams_American Vocab of Celebrations

Crompton, John L.  “Motives of Visitors Attending Festival Events.”  Annals of Tourism Research 24, no. 2 (1997): 425-439. Crompton

Ehrenreich, Barbara.  Dancing in the Streets: A History of Collective Joy.  Holt Paperbacks, 2007.

Klaic, Dragan. Festivals in Focus. Budapest: Central European UP, 2014.

Maeng, Hae Yeong, Hyeong Yu Jang, and Jinxi Michelle Li.  “A Critical Review of the Motivational Factors for Festival Attendance based on Meta-Analysis.”  Tourism Management Perspectives 17 (Jan 2016): 16-25. Maeng

Turner, Victor, “Introduction.” In Celebration: Studies in Festivity and Ritual. Ed. Victor Turner. Washington, D. C. : Smithsonian Institution P, 1982: 11-30. Print.

Turner, intro to Celebration

Race and Ethnicity

Brown, Rodger Lyle. Ghost Dancing on the Cracker Circuit: The Culture of Festivals in the American South. U Mississippi P, 1997.

Bungert, Heike. “Demonstrating the Values of ‘Gemütlichkeit’and ‘Cultur’: The Festivals of German Americans in Milwaukee, 1870-1910. In Celebrating Ethnicity and Nation: American Festive Culture from the Revolution to the Early Twentieth Century. Ed. Geneviève Fabre, Jürgen Heideking, and Kai Dreisbach. New York: Berghahn, 2001: 175-193.

Bungert on German festivals in Milwaukee

Hale, Grace Elizabeth. Making Whiteness: The Culture of Segregation in the South, 1890-1940. New York: Vintage, 1999.

Hale, Deadly Amusements

Kurashige, Lon. “The Problem of Biculturalism: Japanese American Identity and Festivals before World War II.” Journal of American History 86, no. 4 (Mar 2000): 1632-1654.

Mason, Courtney W.  “The Banff Indian Days tourism festivals.”  Annals of Tourism Research 53 (July 2015): 77-95. Mason

Olmstead, Brett. “Mexican Fiestas in Central Michigan: Celebrations and Identity Formations, 1920-1930.” Michigan Historical Review 41, no. 2 (Fall 2015): 33-57.

Pershing, Linda. “You can’t do that, you’re the wrong race”: African American women storytellers at a contemporary festival.” Women & Language 19 (Spring 1996): 57-63.  Pershing(YouCantDoThat)

Skipper, Jodi and David Wharton. “Diasporic Kings and Queens: Lafayette’s Black Mardi Gras Performances in Historical and Hemispheric Contexts.” Southern Quarterly 52, no. 4 (Summer 2015): 133-154.  Skipper(DiasporicKingsandQueens)

Tolney, Stewart and E.M. Beck. A Festival of Violence: An Analysis of Southern Lynchings, 1882-1930. Urbana: U Illinois P, 1995.

Turner, Victor. “Carnival, Ritual, and Play in Rio de Janeiro.” In Time Out of Time: Essays on the Festival. Ed. Alessandro Falassi. Albuquerque: U New Mexico P, 1987.

Walker, William. “We Don’t Live Like that Anymore”: Native Peoples at the Smithsonian’s Festival of American Folklife, 1970-1976.” American Indian Quarterly 35, no. 4 (Fall 2011): 479-514.

White, Shane. “It was a proud day”: African Americans, festivals, and parades in the North, 1741-1834.” Journal of American History 81 (June 1994): 13-50.

Wiggins, William H. “‘They Closed the Town Up, Man!’: Reflections on the Civic and Political Dimensions of Juneteenth.” In Celebration: Studies in Festivity and Ritual. Ed. Victor Turner. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian P, 1982.  Wiggins on Juneteenth

Food/Subject Festivals

Coyle, Kitty. “Blessed with Dogwood: The Story of a Small Town Festival.” North Louisiana History 33, no. 4 (Fall 2003): 103-123.   Coyle(BlessedwithDogwood)

Lewis, George. “Celebrating Asparagus: Community and the Rationally constructed food festival.” Journal of American Culture 20, no. 4 (Winter 1997): 73-78.  Lewis(CelebratingAsparagus)

Organ, Kate, Nicole Koenig-Lewis, Adrian Palmer, and Jane Probert. “Festivals as agents for behavior change: A study of food festival engagement and subsequent food choices.”  Tourism Management 48 (June 2015): 84-99. Organ

Procter, David E. “Victorian Days: Performing Community through Local Festival.” In We Are What We Celebrate: Understanding Holidays and Rituals. Ed. Amitai Etzioni and Jared Bloom. New York: New York UP, 2004. Procter, Victorian Days

Rotuno-Johnson, Michelle.  The Marion Popcorn Festival.  The History Press, 2014.

Skipper, Jodi and David Wharton. “Diasporic Kings and Queens: Lafayette’s Black Mardi Gras Performances in Historical and Hemispheric Contexts.” Southern Quarterly 52, no. 4 (Summer 2015): 133-154.

Snow, Whitney.   “Arab’s Poke Salat Festival.”  Alabama Living 68, no. 5 (May 2015): 16.   http://alabamaliving.coop/article/poke-salat/

White, Shane. “ ‘It was a proud day’: African Americans, festivals, and parades in the North, 1741-1834.”   Journal of American History 81, no. 1 (June 1994): 13-50.

Music Festivals

Adler, Thomas.  Bean Blossom: The Brown County Jamboree and Bill Monroe’s Bluegrass Festivals.  University of Illinois Press, 2011.

Anderton, Chris.  “Branding, Sponsorship, and the Music Festival.”  In The Pop Festival: History, Music, Media, Culture.  Ed. George McKay.  New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015.

Cummings, Joanne and Jacinta Herborn. “Festival Bodies: The Corporeality of the Contemporary Music Festival Scene in Australia.” In The Pop Festival: History, Music, Media, Culture. Ed. George McKay. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. Cummings and Herborn

Gebhardt, Nicholas. “‘Let There Be Rock’! Myth and Ideology in the Rock Festivals of the Transatlantic Counterculture.” In The Pop Festival: History, Music, Media, Culture. Ed. George McKay. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015.

Gebhardt on Rock Festivals

Hudson, Simon, Martin S. Roth, Thomas J. Madden, and Rupert Hudson.  “The effects of social media on emotions, brand relationship quality, and word of mouth: An empirical study of music festival attendees.”  Tourism Management 47 (Apr 2015): 68-76. Hudson

King, Stephen A. “Blues Tourism in the Mississippi Delta: The Functions of Blues Festivals.” Popular Music & Society 27, no. 4 (Dec 2004): 455-475.  King(BluesTourism)

McKay, George. “Introduction.” In The Pop Festival: History, Music, Media, Culture.  Ed. George McKay. New York: Bloomsbury, 2015. McKay_Intro to The Pop Festival

Regis, Helen, et al. “Producing the Folk at the New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival.” Journal of American Folklore 121, no. 482 (Fall 2008): 400-440.  Regis(ProducingtheFolk)

Robinson, Roxy. “No Spectators! The Art of Participation, from Burning Man to Boutique Festivals in Britain.” In The Pop Festival: History, Music, Media, Culture. Ed. George McKay. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. Robinson on Burning Man

Rubinstein, Peter.  “Music Festivals are Being Destroyed by Fans & It Needs to Change.”  Electronic Dance Music News, http://www.youredm.com/2015/07/02/having-fun-at-festivals-should-not-be-at-the-environments-expense/ (accessed January 15, 2016).

Sheehy, Michael. “Woodstock.” Journalism History 37, no. 4 (Winter 2012): 238-246.

Film Festivals

Film Festival Research Network

de Valck, Marijke. “Film Festivals, Bourdieu, and the Economization of Culture.” Canadian Journal of Film Studies 23.1 (2014).

—. Film Festivals: From European Geopolitics to Global Cinephilia. Amsterdam: Amsterdam UP, 2008.


Smith, Sheldon. “The Re-Establishment of Community: The Emerging Festival System of the American West.” Journal of American Culture 8, no. 3 (Fall 1985): 91-100.  Smith(TheRe-establishmentofcommunity)

Cultural Festivals

del Barrio, Maria Jose, Maria Devesa, and Luis Cesar Herrero.  “Evaluating intangible cultural heritage: The case of cultural festivals.”  City, Culture and Society 3, no. 4 (Dec 2012): 235-244. delBarrio

Jankowiak, William and Todd C. White. “Carnival on the Clipboard: An Ethnological Study of New Orleans Mardi Gras.” Ethnology 38, no. 4 (Fall 2009): 335-349.  Jankowiak(CarnivalontheClipboard)

Lindahl, Carl. “The Presence of the Past in the Cajun Country Mardi Gras.” Journal of Folklore Research 33, no. 2 (May-Aug 1996): 125-153.  Lindahl(PresenceofthePast)


Akhoondnejad, Arman.  “Tourist loyalty to a local cultural event: The case of Turkmen handicrafts festival.”  Tourism Management 52 (Feb 2016): 468-477. Akhoondnejad

Kim, Samuel Seongseop, Sangsoo Choi, Jerome Agrusa, Kuo-Ching Wang, and Youngmi Kim.  “The role of family decision makers in festival tourism.”  International Journal of Hospitality Management 29, no. 2 (June 2010): 308-318. Kim

Kruger, Stefan.  “Examining the Influence of the Wine Festival Experience on Tourists’ Quality of Life.”  Social Indicators Research 111, no. 2 (Apr 2013): 435-452. Kruger

Prentice, Richard and Vivien Andersen.  “Festival as Creative Destination.”  Annals of Tourism Research 30, no. 1 (Jan 2003): 7-30. Prentice


Bain, Katie.  “Trashed: Music Festivals are Environmental Disasters.”  LAWeekly, July 11, 2013.  http://www.laweekly.com/music/trashed-music-festivals-are-environmental-disasters-2614424

Laing, Jennifer and Warwick Frost.  “How green was my festival: Exploring challenges and opportunities associated with staging green events.”  International Journal of Hospitality Management 29, no. 2 (June 2010): 261-267. Laing

McKay, George. “Introduction.” In The Pop Festival: History, Music, Media, Culture.  Ed. George McKay. New York: Bloomsbury, 2015. McKay_Intro to The Pop Festival

Rubinstein, Peter.  “Music Festivals are Being Destroyed by Fans & It Needs to Change.”  Electronic Dance Music News, http://www.youredm.com/2015/07/02/having-fun-at-festivals-should-not-be-at-the-environments-expense/ (accessed January 15, 2016).

Sakurai, Ryo, Susan K. Jacobson, Hiromi Kobori, Richard Primack, Kohei Oka, Naoya Komatsu, and Ryo Machida.  “Culture and climate change: Japanese cherry blossom festivals and stakeholders’ knowledge and attitudes about global climate change.”  Biological Conservation 144, no. 1 (Jan 2011): 654-658. Sakurai

Song, Hak Jun, Choong-Ki Lee, Soo K. Kang, and Sug-jin Boo.  “The effect of environmentally friendly perceptions on festival visitors’ decision-making process using an extended model of goal-directed behavior.”  Tourism Management 33, no. 6 (Dec 2012): 1417-1428. Song


Gabbert, Lisa. “Making Objects, Creating Places: McCall Winter Carnival.” Folklore Forum 33, no ½ (2002): 7-33.  Gabbert(MakingObjects)

—. “Situating the Local by Inventing the Global: Community Festival and Social Change.” Western Folklore 66, no. ¾ (Summer/Fall 2007): 259-280.  Gabbert(SituatingtheLocal)

Santino, Jack. “The Ritualesque: Festival, Politics, and Popular Culture.” Western Folklore 68, no. 1 (Winter 2009): 9-26.

Schrift, Melissa R. “The Wildest Show in the South: The Politics and Poetics of the Angola [Louisiana] Prison Rodeo and Inmate Arts Festival.” Southern Cultures 14, no. 1 (Spring 2008): 22-41.  Schrift(WildestShowintheSouth)

Selberg, Torunn. “Festivals as Celebrations of Place in Modern Society: Two Examples from Norway.” Folklore 117, no. 3 (Dec 2006): 297-312.
















Butter and Eggs Day, Petaluma: Through Ethnographic Eyes

For nearly the past one hundred years, Petaluma has hosted the Butter and Eggs Day festival and parade each April. Last year’s parade on April 25, 2015 boasted over 30,000 attendees at an event that lasted nearly five hours. Historians of the festival can find rich archival holdings in local collections. Among the many documents about the festival in the Sonoma County Library archives are photographs of a Charlie Chaplin impersonator at the 1923 Butter and Eggs Day Parade: Butter & Eggs day parade Charlie Chaplin 1923.png

While the vogue for Charlie Chaplin impersonators may have faded, there has always been plenty of popular appeal at the parade: in the 1990s, briefcase-toting downtown merchants dressed up in suits and marched in fancy formation; today, the tradition of the Cutest Chick Contest continues along with floats showcasing everything from Clo the Cow to techno bands. The appeal to tradition is visible everywhere, with all major agricultural industries in the surrounding area contributing to the spirit of home-town pride.


Straus Family Creamery press release, 2011

Gilroy Garlic Festival

The_Great_Morgani-_Gilroy_Garlic_Fest_2009_Animalparty_CC BY 2.0.jpgThe Great Morgani, 2009, by Animalparty, CC BY 2.0, Wikimedia Commons

Festival-goers on their way to the Gilroy Garlic Festival in northern California swear they can smell the garlic growing in the fields as they approach the town. This annual festival boasts dramatic cooking demonstrations (with flames from the grill pans shooting twenty feet in the air), several bands, dancing, and, for refreshments: garlic ice cream.